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No other culture can provide as much information as that gathered by the Chinese and Europeans, but there are many other cultures that observed and recorded the night sky, one of those being the Native Americans Free Astronomy papers, essays, and research papers. The road to becoming an astronomer is not easy, as one must get an excellent education, hope that .

During the last fifteen to twenty years archaeoastronomers have uncovered much concerning the beliefs and records of Native Americans.

Unfortunately, the methods of keeping records of astronomical events were not as straight forward as the Chinese and Europeans. The Native Americans had to use what they could to record what they observed.

Their records were found on rock and cave drawings, stick notching, beadwork, pictures on animal skins and story telling. One of the few dateable events among the various records of Native Americans was the 1833 appearance of the Leonid meteor shower. The most obvious accounts of the Leonid storm appear among the various bands of the Sioux of the North American plains.

The Sioux kept records called €œwinter counts, € which were a chronological pictographic account of each year painted on animal skin.

In 1984 Von Del Chamberlain listed the astronomical references for 50 Sioux, forty five out of fifty referred to an intense meteor shower during 1833/1834 9 Feb 2018 - To contact us directly, please use the contact information to the right. To get started with your research, continue below and by using the tabs .

He also listed nineteen winter counts kept by other plains Indian tribes, fourteen of which referred to the Leonid storm. The Leonids also appear among the Maricopa, who used calendar sticks with notches to represent the passage of a year, with the owner of the stick remembering the events.

The owner of one stick claimed records had been kept that way €œsince the stars fell. € The first notch on the stick represented 1833.

A member of the Papago, named Kutox, was born around 1847 or 1848. He claimed that 14 years prior to his birth €œthe stars rained all over the sky.

€ A less obvious Leonid reference was found in a journal kept by Alexander M 19 Aug 2012 - Research paper on Astronomy writing guidelines. Include all paper publications. These are where to get more recent findings on any topic..

Stephen, which detailed his visit with the Hopi Indians and mentions a talk he had With Old Djasjini on December 11, 1892.

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When I was a young boy eight or ten years there was a great comet in the sky and at night all the above was full of shooting stars. During the lifetime of Old Djasini there was never a great comet and a sky full of meteors in the same year, but he might be referring to the comet in 1843 and the Leonid storm in 1833. The Pawnee have a story about a person named Pahokatawa, who was killed by an enemy and eaten by animals, and then brought back to life by the Gods.

The legend goes that he fell to earth as a meteor and told the people that when meteors were seen falling in great numbers it was not a sign that the world would end. When the pawnee tribe witnessed the time the stars fell upon the earth, which was in 1833, there was a panic, but the leader said, €œremember the words of Pahokatawa € and the people were no longer afraid. This shows how powerful a role astronomy played in the Native American culture.

Astronomy/ native american astronomy term paper 19745

The Cahuilla thought a meteor was the spirit of their first shaman, takwich, who was disliked his people Astronomy Term Papers, Essays, Research Papers on Astronomy. Free Astronomy Get a custom written paper on Astronomy or any other subject. The best .

Takwich wandered the sky at night looking for people far from their tribe.

If he found a lost person he steal their spirit and the person home and eat them. The Shawnee believed meteors were beings fleeing from the wrath of some adversary, or from some anticipated danger.

(Howard 178) Many Native Americans saw the stars as heavenly and mystical. The Wintu explained meteors as the spirits of shamans traveling to the after life. The Chumash referred to meteors as a shooting star.

They believed a meteor was a person €™s soul on their way to the afterlife.

The Eastern Pomo believed meteors were fire dropping from the sky Essay, term paper research paper on Astronomy. The gravity within a black hole is so intense that not even light, can get away from its force. A black hole is so .

The most widely accepted belief was that meteors were the feces of stars. (Hudson 40) which meant, €œLong tailed heavenly climbing star.

€ An Ojibwa says that Genondahwayanung was a star with a long wide tail which would return and destroy the world someday. The shaman said it came down one thousand years ago.

He said it was just like sun, radiation, burning heat in its tail. The comet was said to have scorched earth except for Native Americans, who were warned by a Holy Spirit, Chimantou. The animals were killed off it was so hot stones were said to have melted.

It is said the comet came down and spread for miles.

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The western part of the United States is filled with these pictures, but any dating is virtually impossible 13 May 2018 - Buy My Stuff Keep Bad Astronomy popular critical essay ghostwriting site for masters close to your heart, and help make me filthy rich..

It is very difficult to determine whether or not the object drawn is a meteor or a comet.

The most common petroglyphs are a circle with a wiggly line coming from it. Various archaeologists have interpreted these as meteors, comets and snakes Records were also kept in the form of pottery.

A Hopi jar that was found had a scene that had mountains, stars and three objects falling towards the ground. This scene implies a meteor shower or a meteor that broke up as it fell. It may be possible that this jar depicts the Leonid storm of 1833.

(Hudson 41) Native Americans also attained their records by building structures that would observe the sun Just consult Pro-Papers.com and buy there astronomy research for an affordable price. We do not sell any papers that have already been written, that is why .

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Lines drawn between major markings on the wheel point to the location of solstice sunrises and sunsets and also toward the rising point of the three brightest stars that rise before the sun in the summer. About fifty medicine wheels have been discovered, several are thousands of years.

Many of them have the same alignment as the Bighorn Medicine Wheel. In Chaco Canyon, New Mexico two spirals carved into the rock by the prehistoric Anasazi can be used as a calendar.

A dagger of light penetrates the shadow of adjacent rocks. The dagger moves with the sun to different locations on the full pattern also reflects the 18. 6 year cycle of the moon as well as the yearly cycle of the sun.

The ancient Native Americans were not sophisticated astronomers in the sense of coherent theory behind the movements of heavenly objects, their level of understanding of the time cycles of the sun, moon and planets was great.

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